Enabling Operational Excellence
Enabling Operational Excellence
Enabling Operational Excellence
Enabling Operational Excellence

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The Debate Continues: Expert Systems vs. Business Rules … Yet Another Response

guest post by Jan Purchase, Director of Lux Magi Ltd ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ I do see value in distinguishing ‘policy’ rules from ‘expert’ rules. It’s also clear that, at their extremes, these rule types are poles apart. Still I fear that this distinction may be a continuum rather than a discrete dichotomy. Policy rules might be exemplified as the constraints of business operational practice – the rules that dictate what a company should and should not do. They might be mined from the boundary conditions of the fact model of the company’s business capability – as you suggest in your excellent book on this subject[1]. An example policy rule might assert, for example, “A company agent may be assigned to a high-value customer only if the agent is assigned to at most five other clients”. Expert rules, on the other hand, are often seen as more complex – for example, using heuristics to determine the best, anti-cancer drug to apply in a given situation, or forecasting regional sales opportunities. Often these expert rule bases use expert experience, genetic algorithms, fuzzy logic and feedback loops to reach a decision. They seek to augment, or even supplant, the wisdom of a small population of subject matter experts. But isn’t there a middle ground too? Consider an insurance policy decision rule that bin-sorts clients into good, bad and medium risk (the latter to be referred to a human underwriting expert). If this were a simple four-row, decision table based on the value of the policy and the risk profile of a client, you would probably consider it a ‘policy rule’. But if I add scorecarding, heuristics and analytics, at what point does it become an ‘expert rule’? Would you consider all decision rules (as opposed to constraint rules) to be ‘expert rules’? Or do they need to be complex or directly represent the experience of SMEs? Don’t all rules, to some extent, represent the wisdom of experts? Don’t many of them constitute and inform policy? In short: Is there a simple question we can ask (concerning a rule) to determine if it is a ‘policy’ or ‘expert’ rule? ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ See my reply to Jan: http://www.brsolutions.com/2012/05/29/the-debate-continues-expert-systems-vs-business-rules/ Answer to Jan’s Question: The question to ask of every rule is whether the end-point is enforcement or is it a decision. An enforcement rule never becomes a decision rule, and a decision rule never becomes an enforcement rule. Once an enforcement rule, always an enforcement rule (assuming you don’t retire it). You can adjust thresholds (e.g., the mph of the speed limit), you can change the enforcement level (e.g., from ‘strictly enforced’ to ‘override with explanation’), you can change the sanctions (or eliminate them), etc., etc. And you can and should use analytics to measure and improve the rate of success in achieving underlying business goals. But it’s black and white. Enforcement is enforcement and decisions are decisions.

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Ronald G. Ross

Ronald G. Ross

Ron Ross, Principal and Co-Founder of Business Rules Solutions, LLC, is internationally acknowledged as the “father of business rules.” Recognizing early on the importance of independently managed business rules for business operations and architecture, he has pioneered innovative techniques and standards since the mid-1980s. He wrote the industry’s first book on business rules in 1994.